The compaction of soil by border patrol, illegal immigrant, and drug trafficker activities has led to the death of shallow rooted saguaro cacti . Border patrol activities has lead for commonly driven areas to be turned to "moon dust" (as seen left). This soil is virtually unusable for Sonoran producers. The loss of the saguaro cacti would devastate the ecosystem, leaving many animals without food or shelter. The development of helicopter pads, fences, and lights has also harmed critical elements of the Sonoran ecosystem. An example of this is the loss of Ironwood trees. These are critical to the ecosystem since they provide sixty-two reptiles/amphibians and sixty-four mammals with forage, cover, and birthing grounds while also helping to shelter smaller plants such as young saguaro cacti.